Metals have lattices with metallic bonding either elementary or alloys.
Semimetals have covalent-metallic bonding, where electrons not used in covalent bonding delocalize and produce metallic bonding between covalently bound layers (therefore they have anisotropic conductivity). They are graphite and
|A7||V||α-As, Sb, Bi, and their alloys, rhombohedral graphite|
Elementary semiconductors have covalent bonding:
|A4||IV||C, Si, Ge, α-Sn||indirect bandgap|
Other elementary semiconductors include B, black-P, α-S.
Binary semiconductors have donor-acceptor or covalent-ionic bonding:
|III+V||BP, AlP, GaP, InP, AlAs, GaAs,..., InSb|
|II+VI||ZnS, CdS, CdTe, ZnTe, ZnSe, HgS, HgTe|
|III+V||AlN, GaN, InN|
|II+VI||ZnS, CdS, ZnO|
|IV+VI||PbS, PbTe, SnTe (narrow gap)|
|I+VII||AgCl, AgBr, γ-CuI|
|E11 (chalcopyrite)||II+IV+V||CdSnAs2, CdGeAs2|
Substitutional alloys are possible like GaxAl1-xAs, GaAsxP1-x, CdxHg1-xTe, PbxSn1-xTe.
In contrast to wide-gap semiconductors insulators "absorb" free carriers by intrinsic defects. This process is efficient in ionic (NaCl) or wide-gap covalent-ionic (SiO2) crystals. Other kind of insulator is molecular crystal.
There are two kinds of superionic conductors. The first is ionic crystals with small enough cations to move through the lattice of anions (therefore cation sublattice is disordered). The motion has activation barrier so that typically there is structural transition to high-temperature superionic state: AgI, AgBr, AgCl, CuBr, CuCl, Ag2S, Cu2S. There are also moving cations: PbF2, CaF2, BaF2, ZrO2.
The second kind is porous covalent-ionic crystals with weakly bound ions (typically impure).